During the same period, she also engaged in literary activity and translated four French chansons de geste into German prose. These beginnings were developed further by Eleonore of Austria also known as Eleonore of Scotland, since she is the daughter of James I of Scotland. Her achievements were acknowledged by Andreas Silvius Piccolomini, one of the most important German humanists at the time. Pontus und Sidonia, the love-story of the prince of Galicia and his future bride, quickly achieved widespread literary success, and its special appeal lies not so much in the adventures of the chivalrous hero as in the extended and often vivid depictions of courtly ceremony and everyday life.
Pontus is well-bred, courteous and possesses exquisite table manners, and he marks the shift towards a truly modern novel which features an early aristocrat instead of the traditional knight. In a period when only those manuscripts which had a legal, political or bureaucratic relevance were systematically preserved, it is a matter of pure chance if writing by women is preserved in manuscript form. While there are more manuscript letters, diaries and chronicles in court and convent archives than was formerly thought, it is published writing by women which had the greatest chance of survival.
The poetry of Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg was first published thanks to her guardian, step-uncle and later husband Hans Rudolf von Greiffenberg, Sibylle Schwarz was published thanks to her tutor Samuel Gerlach and it was a grandson who published the work of Margaretha Susanna von Kuntsch. In the two latter cases publication was posthumous, so the writers had no control whatever over the published form of their work.
It is at least probable that the male relatives or mentors instrumental in the publication edited and emended the texts, so that the final product does not have the status of the oeuvre of a modern woman writer. We must also assume that these male editors selected which works to publish and that they may have suppressed material which did not conform to the forms and themes considered suitable for women.
Sometimes a male writer gives an intimation of activity by women in an area where it is in general unsuspected. Even where women published their work, it can be difficult nowadays to establish its authorship. Women took refuge under pseudonyms, for example Aramena, the still unknown author of the novel Die Durchlauchtigste Margaretha von Oesterreich which appeared in Hamburg in One must in general be aware of the existence of a writer before either looking for or finding work by that writer — the problem of the invisibility of women.
Systematic searching will undoubtedly reveal authors hitherto unknown to us. It can therefore be seen that the printed material actually known to us at present represents only an unknown proportion of what women actually wrote. Social and historical factors Since pregnancy accounted for the high mortality of women between the ages of twenty and fifty when compared to men, female biology must be taken into account when discussing literary production.
Even those women who were childless were fully occupied with the endless tasks of early modern housekeeping. Many women, it is clear, simply did not have the leisure or the conditions in which to write. The early modern period We must also ask whether they were literate in the first place.
Around five to ten per cent of the total population in sixteenth- and seventeenthcentury Germany is estimated as being literate, though it is not always easy to define what literate means. While this percentage varied from region to region and increased as the period progressed, we can assume that literacy was highest among upper-class men and lowest among lower-class women. This was true of girls of all social classes. Girls of the aristocracy and middle class were more likely to be educated at home than sent to school and where girls did go to school — something which was usually only possible in the towns anyway — a few hours a day for a maximum of two years was often considered sufficient.
Knowledge in general, apart from a knowledge of housekeeping, was considered unnecessary, indeed burdensome to girls. There was furthermore the fact that Latin was the learned language of the age, the language of science, of educated discourse, even of literature, and that well into the eighteenth century the majority of all writing published in the German-speaking world was in Latin. Few women knew Latin and if they tried to learn it were told, as Kuntsch was by her parents in the s, that this was more suitable for a great lady than for a middleclass girl, whereupon they had to give it up again.
Since all educated men of the period wrote in Latin, sometimes instead of but virtually always as well as in German, one whole aspect of the literary life of the period was by definition closed to women. Women were also debarred from undertaking the kind of travel which was a standard part of the education of young men who aspired to learning. But what of the Renaissance? Surely this meant an opening up of learning and a dissemination of it via the printing-press, a new stress on the individual and his or her development and a questioning of timehonoured assumptions?
Surely the ideals of learning for its own sake and artistic endeavour embraced both men and women equally? It is well known that the Renaissance in France, Italy, England, Spain and other countries produced numerous learned and cultivated women. North of the Alps in the German-speaking world, Agrippa of Nettesheim — was the first German Humanist to sum up the debate on women, their abilities and their rights in his De nobilitate et praecellentia foeminei sexus Women are capable of learning and of literary production and Agrippa is able to support this with quotations from the Bible and the Ancients.
A scholar of even greater prestige, namely Erasmus of Rotterdam ? Barbara Pirckheimer was the eldest child of Dr Johannes Pirckheimer and the sister of the distinguished Humanist Willibald Pirckheimer. At the age of twelve she was sent to the convent of the sisters of St Clare in Nuremberg, the so-called Klarakloster, noted for its learning and holiness and as a school for patrician girls.
Here she took the veil around and by at the latest she had adopted the name of Caritas. She was a woman of great learning, adept in Latin, well known to the Humanists of her day, with many of whom she corresponded. In she was elected abbess of the convent. Three of her younger sisters who had also become nuns served their convents in the same capacity. But in the German-speaking world the Renaissance led to the Reformation and Caritas Pirckheimer herself provides an excellent illustration of the negative effects of the Reformation on those women seeking an intellectual life.
The Reformation was indeed a movement intended by Luther and other early Reformers to empower the ordinary person in the pew, to take religion out of the exclusive control of a priestly class and to open it up even to the unlettered believer, to put the Bible in the vernacular into the hands of all and to stress the importance of the laity over the clergy as enunciated in the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers.
Such an apparently democratic movement, it seems, must have empowered women. Luther gave marriage such a central importance in his moral and social teaching that he went so far as to present marriage and childbearing as the only destiny for women in Ein Sermon von dem ehlichen Stand A sermon on the married estate; ; and Vom ehelichen Leben On married life; , though he was well aware that child-bearing could lead to the death of the mother, as the Predigt vom Ehestand Sermon on the married estate shows.
The celibate life of clerics and nuns was frowned upon and the convents were to be thrown open. If we bear in mind that the convent was the only space available to women where they could be completely free of their biology and where they were not just allowed but encouraged to read, write, study and pray, we can see what a retrograde step this was for them.
By the Klarakloster was fighting for its existence in Reformation Nuremberg. Through the agency of Melanchthon in the convent was allowed to continue in existence but was doomed to extinction because of a prohibition against the admission of novices. Nor could the nuns receive the sacraments according to the old rites.
Caritas died there in aged sixty-six, a woman whose learning was made possible by her life as a nun. He therefore was to be the sole fount of knowledge for his wife, should she need instruction. In consequence only those women who came from an intellectual family, in whose discussions and reading they were allowed to participate, had a chance of acquiring learning.
But were there not important women Reformers? Certainly there were women who worked and fought to further the cause of the Reformation. As the sixteenth century progressed, however, the formation of theological faculties in the new Protestant universities meant that religious interpretation was taken back into professional and therefore male hands and was carried on in an institution to which women by definition were not admitted. One of the main complaints of Anna Ovena Hoyers was precisely the exclusion of women from theological debate. The Reformation in the German-speaking world ensured, however, that at least one book in the vernacular was accessible to women — the Bible.
German women were never forbidden to read the Bible for themselves as English women were in the Act of Parliament promulgated in On the positive side, we might single out two institutions which actually fostered writing by women, particularly in the latter half of our period: Women and literature As well as the social and historical factors mentioned above, there were literary constraints on women too. The novel purveyed lies and was furthermore a dangerous foreign import. Secular love poetry, based as it was on Petrarch or on the Latin poets, contravened conventions about the sexual purity of women.
If we put all these factors together, it is obvious what the bulk of writing by women must consist of: Let us now examine each of these areas in turn. As just mentioned, verse is the pre-eminent genre employed by women. Poems can be small in scale and unpretentious in theme and form; they do not need the long-term concentrated work of a novel or the co-operation of actors and the existence of a theatre before they can be realized.
They are complete in themselves, they can be produced in private and even women had familiar models to emulate: Biblical psalms in translation, hymns in the vernacular, satirical verse on broadsheets, didactic verse in emblems and on gravestones, folksongs, as well as the occasional poetry familiar to all at weddings, christenings and in funeral sermons. Of all forms poetry was the one women could most easily practise in private and without censure.
To illustrate this we shall look briefly at the work of four female poets: The marriage appears to have been a happy one and she bore her husband at least nine children. He died in and in the course of the next ten years, Hoyers lost a large part of her fortune through law-suits and taxes. It was, however, her deviant religious views which led to her unsettled existence from and her ultimate refuge in Sweden. The movement towards Reform, itself so revolutionary and anti-orthodox in the early Reformation years, had hardened into two institutionalized churches, Lutheran and Calvinist.
The same faculties pronounced on which sects and writings were to be banned as heretical. It is clear that by the s Hoyers was reading a great deal of such banned material which circulated secretly among believers. They were both called to order by the Lutheran authorities and had to flee, first to other towns in Schleswig-Holstein and afterwards to Denmark. Hoyers was able to remain in the area under the protection of the Dowager Duchess Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and carried on holding private prayer meetings and worship as before.
On the death of her uncle in she lost her last family protector and from seems to have moved around in North Germany. We know that she was in Sweden by , accompanied by five of her children, though the exact date of her arrival there is not certain, and that by now her financial circumstances were straitened. However, in she came under the protection of Maria Eleonora, Queen Mother of Sweden, who allowed her to live on one of her estates until her death in As a life history of a woman and a non-conformist in the early modern period her story would be fascinating in itself.
Even more interesting is that her emergence as a non-conformist in religious matters also marked The early modern period her emergence as a writer. Her second was her verse rendering of the Book of Ruth, which appeared in Sweden in Today she is chiefly known for her Geistliche und weltliche Poemata Religious and secular poems , an anthology which contains the two above-mentioned works as well as twenty-one others and which appeared in Amsterdam in A Stockholm manuscript put together by her sons Caspar and Friedrich Wilhelm after her death contains a further forty-seven poems.
Clearly these were to be used by a congregation as part of their worship and are characterized by a clarity and simplicity of diction, a heartfelt piety and a regularity of form reminiscent of Luther himself. She indeed saw herself as standing in direct descent from Luther, both in her criticism of clerical abuse and in her composition of hymns for actual liturgical use. She was born in Greifswald as the daughter of a lawyer of standing and education who served at the court of Boguslav XIV in Stettin and later became mayor of Greifswald. The Thirty Years War meant that Schwarz and her siblings spent the years —31 not in Greifswald but in Fretow on the coast.
It is clear that in her studies and in her poetry, which she must have begun to write at about the age of ten, she had the full support of her widowed father and of her brother. By the time of her death at the age of only seventeen, Schwarz had written some eighty poems, a fragment of a drama entitled Susanna and part of a pastoral novel. Her poems, showing skilful use of such forms as the sonnet and the alexandrine, deal with a much wider range of themes than was usual for women, even later in the century.
Of course she writes religious verse and occasional poetry but there are many poems on the theme of friendship and, surprisingly for a woman and a young woman at that, at least a quarter of her verse is Petrarchist love poetry. It would appear that when a talent such as that of Schwarz is given the necessary encouragement and education it can vie with the poetry of male contemporaries. The poetry of Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg makes this point even more forcefully.
This Austrian Protestant aristocrat lost her father at the age of seven, whereupon her step-uncle Hans Rudolf von Greiffenberg became her guardian. He was also her first teacher and taught her the classical languages as well as French, Italian and Spanish. She read works on ancient and modern history, law, politics, astronomy, alchemy, theology and philosophy as well as the European literature of her day. Her Protestantism meant that she and her family had to make long journeys to attend services at important religious festivals, usually to Western Hungary.
After the death of her younger sister and only sibling, Greiffenberg had what she considered an important mystical revelation at Easter in Pressburg Bratislava. Among her friends in the educated Protestant aristocracy was Johann Wilhelm von Stubenberg, a notable translator from French and Italian who had widespread connections with the intelligensia of his day.
She showed him her poems; he acted as her literary mentor and adviser and put her in contact with the poet and scholar Sigmund von Birken —81 , who had settled in Nuremberg in Meanwhile Hans Rudolf, her step-uncle, had declared his long-standing wish to marry her and put her under great pressure to agree, though he was almost thirty years her senior. They were too nearly related for this marriage to be lawful in Austria and when Greiffenberg finally gave in, they had to be married in Bayreuth in After their return to their estates at Seisenegg in Austria in , however, Hans Rudolf had to spend a year in prison on a charge of unlawful cohabitation.
They bear witness to a deeply religious woman who longed for the solitude and the leisure to pursue her studies, her writing and her devotions, but who was constantly forced to abandon them either to help run the house and estate or to entertain the loud jolly company her husband enjoyed. Of all women writers in the early modern period Greiffenberg is the only one to be the subject of sustained research and discussion.
These poems are remarkable by any standard. The physical world is seen as a set of ciphers which have to be decoded to arrive at the spiritual meaning. To do this she employs such tightly controlled forms as the sonnet and pushes language to its boundaries by creating unexpected compounds and by the use of emphatic prefixes.
One is reminded of Gerard Manley Hopkins, who was driven by the same urge to express the unexpressible and who finds himself having to mould and distort language in the same way. From her own point of view and that of her contemporaries her principal achievement as a writer was not her poems but her four extensive series of religious meditations in prose, interspersed here and there with poems, on the incarnation and early life of Jesus , His suffering and death , His teachings and miracles and His life and prophecies Margaretha Susanna von Kuntsch had no such like-minded associates to encourage her literary endeavours.
She explains that though her own inclinations led her to learn Latin and French and other branches of knowledge, her parents were more farsighted than she and decided that such occupation was more suited to a great lady than to a woman of the middle rank and so she had to give up her studies. At eighteen she married Christoph von Kuntsch, also an official of the Altenburg court. With the exception of a period of three years at the beginning of her married life, she spent the rest of her days in Altenburg where she had grown up. Most of her poetry takes exactly that form we outlined above as virtually pre-determined in the case of a woman writer of the period: What strikes the reader is the extent to which her mind is preoccupied with the theme of death to a degree unusual even for a Baroque poet.
Not only is there a large number of references to death, even in the birthday poems for her husband, and of poems on the topic itself but a heart-rending intensity is revealed in her treatment of the subject. Remarkable in this regard is the series of poems on the deaths of her own children, whose names and precise ages to the day she lists in her curriculum vitae. She had fourteen pregnancies of which only one child, her daughter Margaretha Elisabeth, lived to adulthood.
Two of the pregnancies ended in miscarriages, two were stillbirths, two were premature and no less than five others died at less than a year old. Two others died aged seven and nine respectively. In a skilfully turned poem she compares the courage needed by the warrior Agamemnon in battle with the far greater courage needed to cope with the loss of his child, and then contrasts herself, now the mother of nine dead children, both to Agamemnon and to Timantes, who like herself, is attempting to depict grief in art. If he was unable to limn the pain of another, how can she present her own heartbreak?
She ends her poem: It is clear that these women were active in various non-conformist religious groups throughout the seventeenth century, something we have already seen in the case of Hoyers. One of the best-known of these spiritual autobiographies is that of the noblewoman Johanna von Merlau, more commonly known by her married name of Johanna Eleonore Petersen.
She tells the story of her life up to the birth of her first son in vivid detail: For her this outward narrative is the framework for what really concerns her, namely, her spiritual development. She learns to depend absolutely on God and to see His hand in all things and as her spirituality becomes more and more inward and her own inclinations more ascetic, she finds the social role she is required to play, for instance, at court, deeply distasteful.
Had either of these women belonged to a different religious grouping, the convent would have been the obvious refuge. Johanna von Merlau, however, has to marry and her struggle to accomplish this and yet remain true to her religious ideals constitutes a constant thread in her narrative. Once she is married to Petersen and can express her spirituality in sympathetic surroundings, she then develops visionary and prophetic gifts. As an exploration of emotions and spirituality and in its insistence on their primacy over the happenings of daily life, this autobiography anticipates the eighteenth century.
She addresses her memoirs ostensibly to her children but maintains that her intention is not didactic. Rather she is writing in order to commune with herself, to have someone to talk to in the loneliness of her widowhood. The sheer length of her account means that the reader is given a full and detailed picture of the customs, religious observance and daily life of the German Jewish community of her day. She displays the same piety, the same trust in God, the same resignation in adversity as her Christian contemporaries, but in contrast to them was clearly treated by her husband as an equal partner in his business with whom he discussed every negotiation, every financial deal, to such an extent that she was able to take over the business on his death.
Prose fiction by women in this period takes second place behind the autobiographical writings just discussed. Julia, for instance, maintains that since the novel is a form of literature which actually purveys lies, women are particularly susceptible to corruption by it. Virtuous books present wise and true precepts in a pleasing and digestible manner. The debate is decided in favour of Angelika. Sibylle Ursula delayed marrying to devote herself to her writing. Among other things she translated one of the Latin writings of the Spanish Humanist Juan de Vives into German and wrote a five-act play and a series of spiritual meditations Geistliches Kleeblatt, but it is for her contribution to the novel that she is chiefly known today.
It is thought that when Sibylle Ursula married belatedly in at the age of thirty-four she handed her work over to her brother who revised and reordered parts of it, added to it and gave it to his old tutor Sigmund von Birken to edit. In the year of their marriage she and her husband published the first volume of the pastoral novel Die Kunst-und Tugend-gezierte Macarie The artistic and virtuous Macarie , in which to an extent they describe their own love story. The novel tells the history of the shepherd Polyphilus who sets off to find honour and falls in love with the beautiful and learned Macarie.
Before he can win her, however, he must first learn to see through the sham glamour of court life and the emptiness of power before he can retreat to the commu- The early modern period nity of shepherds and live a life of virtue and literary endeavour with his beloved Macarie.
If the first part was the work of both the Stockfleths, the second part, which appeared in , was written by Maria Katharina alone and is generally agreed to be both more profound in its ideas and of much greater literary merit than the first part on which the couple collaborated. If there is little prose fiction by women in this period, there is even less drama.
The only milieu which was at all propitious in this regard was the court. It is untitled and not quite finished but is modelled on the martyr dramas of the age in which a virtuous woman, exposed to the untrammelled lust and unscrupulous wiles of an evil man, is prepared to lose her life rather than her virtue. Though only twenty-two at the time of her marriage, she took her role as step-mother to four young children, as wife of a man of learning and artistic interests and as consort to the ruler of a duchy very seriously.
She herself composed and wrote and was a central figure in the cultural life of the court. She was also the author of a considerable quantity of religious verse. The first of these is a short opera: Lastly there is the five-act prose drama Ein Freudenspiel von dem itzigen betrieglichen Zustande in der Welt A comedy on the present deceitful way of the world; In his discussion of Ein Freudenspiel in the same article Roloff points out that the Duchess is here using drama to analyse and pass judgement on one of the burning issues of her day: Sophie Elisabeth sets up two princes and two courts, the one Machiavellian, scheming, violent and unscrupulous, the other peace-loving, just and honourable and shows how, in spite of a series of intrigues, virtue wins out in the end.
It is an allegorical and didactic drama which is doubly fascinating because it reflects with great subtlety the political theories of the day and because it is written by the consort of a ruler to be performed in front of him and his court by, among others, his own children, future rulers and consorts of rulers themselves. But much material in manuscript form is still to be unearthed in court archives. Given the difficulties faced by sixteenth- and seventeenth-century women who wanted to write, it seems almost a miracle that they wrote at all.
The dawning of a new age, in which women might officially be acknowledged to have talents which could be trained and furthered, in however limited a way, is marked by the appearance at the beginning of the eighteenth century of three works by men which celebrated women writers: With a considerable admixture of nationalist feeling, the three authors want to prove that German women are as capable of learning and literary talent as those of any nation.
The Enlightenment is on the horizon. Part II The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries lesley sharpe 3 The Enlightenment The period covered in this chapter saw the decisive emergence of the female writer and of a female reading public. Literacy expanded considerably in the German states during the eighteenth century, including literacy among women, whose education had frequently been neglected, and the reading of imaginative literature as a leisure activity gained respectability among the expanding middle classes.
Whereas at the beginning of the period even literate women rarely read anything beyond household manuals or works of religious edification, by the end of the eighteenth century male commentators were voicing concern about the sorry effects of the Lesewut reading mania that had gripped the female middle classes. The period to was a time of change in the traditional image of woman and the roles ascribed to her. In the first half of the century, it was fully accepted that men should have authority over women and that in the hierarchy of the household women should be subordinate.
In the predominantly rural and small-town communities in the German states the nuclear family had not yet developed and women were important to the economic success of the extended household see Hausen ; the skill, industry, thrift and practical sense of the German Hausmutter were greatly prized.
Thus popular channels of Enlightenment thinking, for example the moral weeklies modelled on English periodicals such as The Spectator and The Tatler, took up the cause of the improvement of education and the expansion of edifying reading  48 lesley sharpe for women see Martens. By the end of the century the ideal middle-class woman was gebildet, acquainted with a range of imaginative and informative literature, though anything but gelehrt, academic or learned.
Yet by the end of the century women found themselves in a new kind of straitjacket. The ideal image of woman was now based on the mother of the nuclear family, a social unit that was becoming increasingly the norm as town life and the professional middle class expanded. The wife of the lawyer, professor, administrator or magistrate was not economically active but rather responsible for the good management of the household and for the creation of domestic warmth and harmony. She was now to be more of a companion to her husband, and a source of basic education and emotional stability to their children.
The nature of the relationship between the sexes became the subject of intense discussion. Secular ideas based on the emerging scientific disciplines and supported by theories of education and political and social development those of Rousseau being perhaps the most influential displaced old religious prejudices against women but introduced new stereotypes. The relationship between the sexes was held to be one of complementarity, and accompanying this notion was an increasingly rigid conception of the contrasting sets of attributes of the sexes, often known as Geschlechtscharaktere.
Anatomy, physiology and anthropology were used to support the notion that women were essentially different from men not only in body but also in mind and should pursue only those activities compatible with their calling Bestimmung as Gattin, Hausfrau und Mutter spouse, housewife and mother. The resulting theories of the separate spheres of male and female activity, which determined the relations between the sexes well into the twentieth century, sprang from this intense preoccupation with gender roles in the later part of the eighteenth century. Thus, while literacy and reading among women greatly increased in the second half of the century, new culturally determined restrictions were being placed on the exercise of that literacy.
The great expansion of the reading public in Germany brought an intensive preoccupation on the part of male writers with aesthetics and the poetological assumptions underlying literary creation. Though women were writing and publishing in ever greater numbers by the last decades of the century, recognition of their achievements was hampered by the changing theories of literature, from the idea of poetry as a craft The Enlightenment that could be learned to the more inspirational model culminating in the Geniekult.
As the emphasis shifted increasingly to the psyche of the artist and to the particular confluence of conscious and unconscious, of reason and imagination in the act of creation, so women were increasingly excluded. Women might show evidence of skill and talent within the lesser genres but genius, the divine spark, tended to be regarded as vouchsafed exclusively to men see Battersby, esp. Women writers in the eighteenth century constantly had to manoeuvre for the space left them by male writers and literary arbiters, basing the justification for their participation in literary activity on the didactic value of their work.
While they are represented in the lyric and the drama, women particularly exploited the novel, the didactic short story and the lively and well-written letter, forms that were more fluid and lower in the hierarchy of genres, and their exponents therefore arguably less of a threat to male writers. Christiana Mariana von Ziegler grew up in a wealthy and prominent Leipzig family. By the age of twentyseven she was a widow twice over and had lost also the two children from her marriages. Having returned to her parental home in Leipzig, she was in the position as a wealthy widow to make that home a meeting place for the literary and musical world.
She furnished Bach, who came to take up his position as Kantor of the Thomasschule in , with the texts for a number of his cantatas. One of the literary figures she helped to prominence was the young scholar Johann Christoph Gottsched, who was determined to raise the status of German language and literature by a programme of reform. Her first collection of poetry, Versuch in Gebundener Schreib-Art An exercise in verse , was published in In she published a collection of letters, Moralische und Vermischte Send-Schreiben.
Addressed to several of her good and close friends , and in Vermischte Schriften in gebundener und ungebundener Rede Miscellaneous writings in verse and prose. Her collections of poems range from religious verse to occasional poems, pastoral poems and satirical and didactic verse. You may rave wildly and bellow like the hound of hell — they will sit undisturbed on fair Pindus. Ziegler herself had to suffer a good deal of ridicule and invective the more she came to prominence.
It is clear that she considered women every bit as intellectually competent as men, as we can judge from her reply to a female friend whose daughter shows an interest in learning: In this same letter she even goes as far as to suggest that women should not be excluded from professional and public life, the reward most men have from their studies. This was a profoundly revolutionary idea, however, and if she had clung to it she would no doubt have lost the sympathy of the male supporters on whom she and all women who wished to publish depended.
Brought up in an educated middle-class family, she rebelled in both word and deed against the roles she felt were forced on women. Her main collection of poetry, Poetische Rosen in Knospen Poetic rosebuds; , shows her fluency and versatility in the German language. It contains many conventional religious and occasional poems but also indicates her conscious adoption of unconventional personae. She first came to fame as the result of a poem written in praise of Prince Eugene and his Hussars. Her life too reflected this desire for expansion out of the conventional female roles.
It was on one such ride that she drowned while crossing a bridge. It conveys the excitement of her voyage of discovery with a compelling immediacy: Drama and theatre In the first half of the eighteenth century two women were of decisive importance in laying the foundations of a renaissance of the German 51 52 lesley sharpe theatre. Both were allies of the dominant literary arbiter, Gottsched, but both were superior to him in imagination and literary talent.
Caroline Neuber was the daughter of an Erfurt lawyer, whose harshness drove her to flee from home in with her suitor, later her husband, Johann Neuber, and join the Spiegelberg troupe of actors. These latter catered for the limited artistic demands of their audiences with a mixture of low comedies and historical costume dramas the Haupt- und Staatsaktion , with comic interludes provided by the ubiquitous comic figure, whether the Italianate Harlekin or the indigenous Hanswurst.
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Zur Veranstaltung werden namhafte Vertretere aller Bereiche sowohl aus dem In- als auch aus dem Ausland hierzu eingeladen. Die Homepage soll am Lehrende Wien Gymnasium der Dominikanerinnen Jugendliche Wien Business Academy Donaustadt Jugendliche Wien Schulverein Komensky Kinder Wien bfi-Wien Oktober bis 7. Teil des interkulturellen Lernens an unserer Schule. Ein Rahmenprogramm Sprachenfest, Sprachberatung etc.
Erwachsene Wien British Bookshop Buchhandelsges. Jugendliche Studierende Wien Thomas Fritz geben, sowie Einstufungsberatungen mit unseren SprachkursleiterInnen. Erwachsene Wien Regenbogenvolksschule Darwingasse Auf dem Pragramm stehen: Kinder Wien Schulverein Komensky Oktober bis 3. Wien ein Referat zum Thema "Fremde Schriften" halten, das um Es werden auch Teile eines Films dazu gezeigt werden und Herr Prof. Baustein Tschechisch — Christa Rothmeier: Geschichte der tschechischen Literatur des Neuauflage des Lehrbuchs Tschechisch.
Folgende Sprachen stehen im Mittelpunkt: Lehrinhalte der Unterrichtsstunden sind Alltagsphrasen und landeskundliche Aspekte. Jugendliche Wien Sek-Languages Sprachinstitut Folgende Sprachen werden u. August bis Es gibt Kleingruppen- und Einzelunterricht. Weitere Einstufungstests am Erwachsene Wien Volksschule Europaschule Jugendliche von Minderheiten sagen ihre Meinung Parlament, Dr.
Geschlossene Veranstaltung - Zutritt nur mit Einladung Zielgruppe: September bis 6. Im Jahr waren dies 82 Lehrveranstaltungen mit ca. Lehrende Wien Gymnasium und Realgymnasium 1 Nach Voranmeldung gibt es eine Schnupperstunde gratis. Jugendliche Erwachsene Wien Estrellas Bei der Anmeldung erhalten Sie alle weiteren Details zu diesen und anderen Gruppen. Wie und wo lernen MigrantInnen Deutsch? Jugendliche Wien Volkshochschule Penzing Im ersten Teil, ab Ein genaues Programm finden Sie unter http: Im Rahmen von Museum Online ist die Website www.
Unsere BesucherInnen sind am Englisch soll uns in dieser Gruppe verbinden und gleichzeitig wollen wir auch die jeweils anderen Sprachen als Norm erleben. Jugendliche Wien Kooperative Mittelschule Selzergasse Hier sind ErziehungswissenschaftlerInnen und LinguistInnen besonders gefordert. Das Hauptanliegen besteht darin, Sprache themenbezogen inhaltlich aufzubereiten, um sie im authentischen wirtschaftlichen Umfeld anzuwenden. Durch intensive Vor- und Nachbereitung soll der Transfer von Fachwissen und Fachsprache in der realen Wirtschaftskommunikation im Ausland erfolgreich gemeistert werden.
Zur Vertiefung und Sicherung des Wissensstandes und der beruflichen Fertigkeiten wird das Projekt dreistufig angelegt. In kleinen Workshops werden Sprachen z. Kinder Wien Sek-Languages Sprachinstitut Details werden im Herbst mit allen Interessierten besprochen. Die Verbindung zwischen Wirtschaft und Sprache wird erfolgreich gelebt. Kinderlieder - a capella in verschiedenen Muttersprachen "Kritzeklein": Jugendliche Erwachsene Wien Volkshochschule Brigittenau Japanische Schriftzeichen mit Akio Yokoyama.
Arabisches Alphabet mit Moustafa Hassan. Dieser Workshop bietet Kindern und Jugendlichen Gelegenheit, das arabische Alphabet kennen zu lernen. Kommen Sie einfach vorbei und lassen Sie sich von den SprachexpertInnen beraten! Die Kursberatung ist kostenlos und eine Voranmeldung ist nicht notwendig. Deaf Comedians im Odeon Theater Mittels Videokonferenzschaltung findet die Nacht der Sprachen an zwei Orten zugleich statt.
Um Voranmeldung wird gebeten. Alle interessierte LinguistInnen sind willkommen. Die Sprache der Konferenz ist Englisch. Erwachsene Wien Gymnasium der Dominikanerinnen Es wird ein Tag verbracht, an dem man die Sprachen aufmerksam betrachtet und vergleicht. Dazu gibt es unter anderem einen Theaterworkshop, Ausstellungen, einen Wettbewerb sowie Sprachkurse. Jugendliche Wien Kooperative Mittelschule Pazmanitengasse Singen, tanzen und musizieren ist verboten. Nur die Wildcats haben die Musik noch nicht aufgegeben und werden von der Polizei gejagt. Die Mittelschule Pazmanitenplatz hat ein spannendes Musical einstudiert, das am In der Sprachschule Dr.
Ein Sprachenschnuppern der anderen Art wird hier durch den musikalischen Zugang angeboten. Ein kleines Begleitprogramm zum Thema Sprachenlernen ist geplant. Jugendliche Wien Volksschule Waldschule Kinder Wien gecko-art Die Aktion wird mit Mitteln des BM: Es geht darum, einen ersten und lustvollen Zugang zur jeweiligen Sprache zu finden.
Sprach-Schnupperkurs Hindi - Sprach-Schnupperkurs Russisch - Ziel des Aktionstages ist es, den Menschen die Vorteile von Sprachkenntnissen bewusst und Ihnen das Lernen von Sprachen schmackhaft zu machen. Kasperl und Boing helfen den Kindern dabei, die beiden Geschichten kennen zu lernen. Aber nicht nur gelesen wird an diesem Tag. BesucherInnen machen eine Erkundungsreise. September , von Tschechisch Die Schnupperkurse dauern jeweils 30 Minuten. Vor Ort kann man auch Spiele ausprobieren, die im Kurs verwendet werden.
Ich versteh dich nicht! Von Nachtwachtern und Schmauswaberl: Kannst du mich finden? Dazu gibt es immer etwas zu entdecken, das "anders" ist - oder vielmehr einmalig. Von 4 - 7 Jahren. Gleichzeitig kann in anderen Workshops in der Schule in verschiedene Sprachen hineingeschnuppert werden. Da die Europaschule schon lange mit den Kindern an der Thematik der Mehrsprachigkeit arbeitet und diese produktiv nutzt z.
Kinder Wien Neue Mittelschule 20 Greiseneckergasse Kinder Wien Interlingua Language Services Bundesheer, Landesverteidigungsakademie, Sprachinstitut des Bundesheeres Mit einem feierlichen Festakt wird am Kinder Wien Volkshochschule Brigittenau Vortrag "Lateinische Inschriften Wiens" Als Preise winken u. Workshops, Schnupperstunden unter dem Motto "Sprachenlernen mal anders Kabarettist Clemens-Maria Schreiner Nach dem Aktionsprogramm am Welche Muttersprachen gibt es in unserer Klasse?
Jugendliche Lehrlinge Wien Komensky Schule Alle SprachtrainerInnen sind methodisch versiert, erfahren und mehrsprachig. Kostenfreie Einstufungstest und Probestunden. So wird die erfolgreiche "Sprachenbim" der Wiener Volkshochschulen wieder unterwegs sein. Karten Voranmeldung unter behindthesign oeglb. Heinschink; Lesung von Ilija Jovanovic: Der Festgottesdienst im Dom, der vielsprachig gefeiert wird hat heuer das Motto: Gott legt seinen Geist wo er will.
Die fremdsprachigen Gemeinden aus dem afro-asiatischen und lateinamerikanischen Raum feiern am "Sonntag der Weltkirche", im Oktober, im Wiener Stephansdom einen gemeinsamen Festgottesdienst. Oktober bis 2. Italienisch im Projekt SIB einzusteigen. Die Sprachkurse werden von eigens ausgebildeten KollegInnen unserer Schule, die die angebotenen Sprachen auch tlw.
Kinder Wien Privatinitiative 2. Bitte Proviant, Medien, Ideen und Begeisterung mitbringen! Programm, Zeit und Ort bestimmt der Kunde! Kostenfreie Einstufungstest und Probestunden bitte Terminvereinbarung!
September bis 8. Beruf, Ausbildung, Dating, Beziehung, Stress u. Das Projekt Sprachenschiff am Erwachsene Wien Volksschule am Baumann-Park Diese Filmsequenzen stellen Sprachen anhand konkreter Beispiele vor und laden ein, Sprachen auszuprobieren. September , um Erich Hohenberger Bezirksvorsteher 3. Erwachsene Wien gecko-art Die kleine Ausstellung regt zum Denken an, vielleicht auch zum Schmunzeln. Wie kann ich leicht eine neue Sprache lernen: Studentinnen und Studenten des Kollegs gestalten einen Kurzfilm in dem sie einfache berufliche Situationen in ihrer jeweiligen Muttersprache darstellen 3.
Der sprechende Suppentopf ist hungrig auf Geschichten. Nebenbei lernen wir auch einige Worte in verschiedenen Sprachen. Ihr Sek-Languages Team Zielgruppe: Mehrsprachigkeit, ein kreatives Neben- und Miteinander von Sprachen, Verwendung von interethnischen und internationalen Verkehrssprachen lingue franche — und die Anerkennung der Tatsache, dass die Mehrsprachigkeit nicht nur "parallele Einsprachigkeiten" bedeutet.
Wie reagiert die Forschung auf den Wandel der Sprachenlandschaft und des sprachlichen Verhaltens? Oktober bis 1. Jugendliche Jugendliche Wien Ganztagsvolksschule Europaschule 5. Rund Kinder, 15 Lehrer und Lehrerinnen sowie Studierende des 3. Ziele sind die Nutzung des Sprachenpotentials unseres Schulklientels, die Diversifizierung des Sprachenangebots und der Erwerb sprachlicher und metasprachlicher Kompetenzen, sowie die Hebung des Sozialstatus von MigrantInnensprachen durch die institutionelle Einbindung in unsere Schule.
Jeweils im September veranstalten wir zum Auftakt ein Sprachenschnuppertag. In einem Stationenbetrieb beschnuppern die Kinder alle im Sprachenkarussell angebotenen Sprachen. Produkte werden im Schulhaus ausgestellt. Ausschnitte einer Geschichte in einer Fremdsprache. Gemeinsam soll erraten werden, um welche Geschichte es sich handelt, welche Vokabeln zentral sind und dadurch eventuell die Geschichte verraten. Kleine Spiele und Quizzes machen das Kennenlernen spannend und interessant. Lehrlinge Erwachsene Wien equalizent GesmbH September ab Details zur Aktion finden Sie unter: Haupteingang Stadthalle Wien, Vogelweidplatz 14, Wien, Kde je Urban Loritz-Platz?
Die Mikrofone stehen bereit! Verschaffe dir einen Eindruck von den Sprachkursen von Learning Events! Literatur Lesung aus diversen Werken Zielgruppe: Workshop zum Thema Mehrsprachigkeit Und manchmal sind sie einfach ein romantischer Anblick am Himmelszelt. Jugendliche Wien Gymnasium der Dominikanerinnen BHAS Wien 22 Kinder Wien VS, Hebbelplatz 2 Die Kinder werden die ganze Nacht in der Schule verbringen und gemeinsam mit den Lehrerinnen und den Frauen die Nacht gestalten.
Kinderlieder, wie Sie diese noch nie gesungen haben, euren Kindern wird es gefallen! In der 4C wird an diesem Tag Tschechisch auf dem Stundenplan stehen. Schnupper-Sprachkurse, Bildungsberatung und vieles mehr Sprachen-Pubquiz - zu gewinnen gibt es tolle Sachpreise und Gutscheine. Anmeldung vor Ort oder vorab unter anmeldung vhs. Ihr Team der Wiener Volkshochschulen www.
Oder kannst du sogar ohne Sprachen sprechen? Oktober bis 6. Feber bis Da begegnen uns spannende Geschichten von wilden Tigern, listigen Igeln, singenden Hasen Von 4 bis 11 Jahren. Andere Wien Sek-Languages Sprachinstitut Tauchen sie mit uns in die wunderbare Welt der Sprachen ein! Gewinnspiele, Schnupperkurse und vieles mehr erwartet Sie! Stadt und Landleben Zielgruppe: Wir freuen uns sehr auf diesen Tag der Sprachen! Zum Schluss wird es ein Wettrennen geben, indem neu erworbene Informationen in Form eines Wettbewerbs getestet werden. Kommen Sie einfach vorbei! Die letzten Schnupperkurse beginnen um Bei der Langen Nacht der Sprachen am We're looking forward to meeting you!
Wir warten auf Dich! Passend zum Sprachentag singen die beiden Kinderlieder in vielen Sprachen und laden zum Mitsingen ein. Treffpunkt ist um 16 Uhr die Bim Station 31 am Schottenring. Wo fahren wir hin? Alle Kinder sind willkommen! Um Anmeldung unter alaruedarueda gmx. Das Curriculum der Jugendbildungswerkstatt ist Grundlage unserer Arbeit und wird Interessierten vorgestellt und in der Praxis erlebbar. Gemeinsames lesen mit Opas, Omas und Enkelkindern. Wanderstationen - Alte Berufe 5.
September findet im Wilhelmsdorferpark Alle sind eingeladen sich zu beteiligen an dieser kollektiven Sprachenbiografie. Wir bitten daher alle TeilnehmerInnen eine Kleinigkeit mitzunehmen Zielgruppe: Das Leben ist ein Spiel! Kinderlieder, wie Sie diese noch nie gesungen haben, ihren Kindern wird es gefallen! Die Zeichnungen werden im BE-Unterricht gesteuert.
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- BIBLIOGRAPHY SEXISM.
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Die fertigen Werke werden laminiert, gelocht und gebunden. September bis 3. Andrea Klotz, Balanceakt-Theater, Drosendorf. Jahr zum Thema "Gestern" Bemerkenswertes geleistet werden. Es gibt auch eine web Adresse: Englisch als Arbeitssprache; Konferenz noch erstellt und nachgereicht. Oktober bis 4. Phrasen gebildet werden, z. Verstehen, Begreifen, Tolerieren, Mitmachen - language is Recollections sex, recognitions race, dreaming politics. Sisters in the struggle. Blacks, gays, and the struggle for equality. Asketischer Eros und die Rekonstruktion der Natur zur Maschine.
Women, sex, and race a realistic view of sexism and racism.. Sexual, racial and political faces of corruption: A view on the high cost of institutional evils. Sex and religion in oppression: A view on the sexual exploitation of women under paganism, Hinduism, Mohammedianism sic , and Christianity. Sexismus in der Schule: Der heimliche Lehrplan der Frauendiskriminierung. Die Frau im deutschen Lexikon: Anxious masculinity in early modern England. Cambridge England New York: Die Debatte um Pornographie.
Gender and health an international perspective. Upper Saddle River, N. Sexism, racism and oppression. Casting stones prostitution and liberation in Asia and the United States. Breaking out VMI and the coming of women. Matriarchat und Patriarchat, zur Entstehung der Familie ethnographische Forschung, theoretische Diskussion: Buckingham England Bristol, PA: New Zealand manual for male chauvinist pigs or, Bird watchers guide to birds to avoid.
The creative vision of Bessie Head. Christianity, patriarchy, and abuse a feminist critique. Good wives, nasty wenches, and anxious patriarchs: Gender, race, and power in colonial Virginia. Untying the apron strings: Anti-sexist provision for the under-fives. Science and technology in the early years an equal opportunities approach. William Blake and the daughters of Albion. The reformation of machismo: Evangelical conversion and gender in Colombia.
University of Texas Press.
A History of Women's Writing in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - PDF Free Download
Berkeley Women and Language Group. The subordinate sex a history of attitudes toward women. University of Illinois Press. Learning about sexism in New Zealand. Changing perspectives on gender new initiatives in secondary education. Changing perspectives on gender: New initiatives in secondary education.
Gender shock exploding the myths of male and female. Exploding the myths of male and female. Women, class, family and the state. Women and the mass media: Sourcebook for research and action. Mujercitas, eran las de antes? Women as printers, publishers and distributors.
Sirius moonlight the origins of the suppression of the feminine. The origins of the suppression of the feminine. A new perspective on sexism. En femenino y en masculino. Instituto de la Mujer. Tirant lo Blanch CC. Literatura, mujer y sexismo. A la mujer por la palabra. Editorial de la Universidad Nacional. Feminism and linguistic theory. The Feminist critique of language a reader.
The feminist critique of language a reader. The Feminist critique of language: Girls failing fitness or fitness failing girls how do girls interpret the efforts of education to provide equity in sports and athletics? Finishing school for blokes college life exposed. Finishing school for blokes: Eliminating sex-role stereotyping editorial guidelines for Employment and Immigration Canada communications.
Employment and Immigration Canada, Public Affairs. Editorial guidelines for Employment and Immigration Canada communications. How to eliminate sexism in communications. Communications Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission..
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The Portrayal of gender in Canadian broadcasting summary report, Christian feminism and theological education. The fates of the earth. Black men on race, gender, and sexuality: New York University Press. Speaking of men and women a unit of language study. Women, work, and poverty. Es usted un macho?
El machismo en Venezuela. From Barbie to mortal kombat gender and computer games. La Violencia contra la mujer.. Secretariado Arquidiocesano de Pastoral Social. Pedagogy, gender, and equity. State University of New York Press. Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Centre Georges Pompidou Paris.. Gallimard-Electa Centre Georges Pompidou. Educando para la igualdad entre los generos: Women, murder and justice.
Hampshire ; New York: Reconcilable differences confronting beauty, pornography, and the future of feminism. Confronting beauty, pornography, and the future of feminism. Gender in modern Britain. What Japanese words say about women. Womansword what Japanese words say about women. New York Berkeley, Calif. Notes of an expert witness. Spirit mourn, spirit dance: Wisdom for the decade and beyond. Presses universitaires de France. Writers and Readers Cooperative. Gender mainstreaming in legal and constitutional affairs a reference manual for governments and other stakeholders.
The case for women--Britain and Europe. Kliment Ohridski University Press. The making of anti-sexist men. Sex bias in research: Current awareness and strategies to eliminate bias within Canadian social science.
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Social Science Federation of Canada. Church Council on Justice and Corrections Canada. Family violence in a patriarchal culture a challenge to our way of living. Church Council on Justice and Corrections. The use of inclusive language with the ASB: The new woman and the old academe: Sexism and higher education. National Council of Teachers of English.
Male writers and gender ed criticism. Johns Hopkins University Press. Girls, boys, books, toys: Schooling the daughters of Marianne: Textbooks and the socialization of girls in modern French primary schools. The sexism of social and political theory women and reproduction from Plato to Nietzsche. University of Toronto Press. Antifeminism in the academy. Sex bias in school leadership.
Fundamentos del patriarcado moderno Jean Jacques Rousseau. Democracia y patriarcado en Jean Jacques Rousseau.. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Brothers male dominance and technological change. Male dominance and technological change. Machinery of dominance women, men, and technical know-how. Brothers Male dominance and technological change. The feminist teacher anthology pedagogies and classroom strategies. The feminist teacher anthology: Pedagogies and classroom strategies.
Race and gender discrimination at work. The human relations experience. Exercises in multicultural, nonsexist education. Understanding and confronting our prejudices. Filtering people understanding and confronting our prejudices. Igualdad de oportunidades para las mujeres. Equal opportunities for women and men in the European Union annual report.. Equal opportunities for women and men in the European Union annual report Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Handbook on equal treatment for women and men in the European Union.. Women and work report on existing research in the European Union.. Comment les femmes et les hommes utilisent-ils leur temps? Assisting spouses of the self-employed report of the two round tables organised by the European Commission in Brussels on 7 February and 23 and 24 June Clase y raza en los textos escolares. Commission of the European Communities. The serpent and the goddess women, religion, and power in Celtic Ireland. The menopause industry how the medical establishment exploits women.
Conference on women and the household. Structures of patriarchy state, community and household in modernising Asia. Just words law, language and power. Balancing the scales an examination of the manipulation and transformation of symbolic concepts of women. Eliminating discrimination against women the report of a conference. Racism and sexism responding to the challenge. National Council for the Social Studies. Responding to the challenge. After patriarchy feminist transformations of the world religions. Our Father in heaven: Christian faith and inclusive language for God. The Southern Baptist Convention and the judgement of history: The taint of an original sin.
Selves and others in society and scholarship. Vivement des femmes Violaine de Cordon.. The hidden malpractice how American medicine mistreats women. The mother machine reproductive technologies from artificial insemination to artificial wombs. Man-made women how new reproductive technologies affect women. Your daughters shall prophesy: Feminist alternatives in theological education. On equal terms how to eliminate sexism in communications. Communications Branch, the Correctional Service of Canada.
Buckingham England Philadelphia, PA: Women, power, and resistance: Community college guide to curriculum change integrating the scholarship on women. Council on Interracial Books for Children.. Stereotypes, distortions and omissions in U. Council on Interracial Books for Children. Winning justice for all.. A content rating instrument for educators and concerned parents: Patriarchal precedents sexuality and social relations.
Sexuality and social relations. Les Femmes dans les livres scolaires. Women, media, and sport challenging gender values. Gender, family, and household in Tanzania. Aldershot, Hants, England Brookfield, Vt. Materiales para coeducar el comentario de textos: Changes in the SAT-verbal: A study of trends in content and gender references, College Entrance Examination Board.
Cruz Muriel Tapia, M. Antifeminismo y subestimacin de la mujer en la literatura medieval castellana. The case of Vanessa. Sexism in award winning picture books. Sexing the Trinity gender, culture and the divine. Harems and other horrors sexual bias in behavioral biology. Harems and other horrors: Sexual bias in behavioral biology. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Gender, crime and punishment. The church and the second sex. Quintessence-- realizing the archaic future a radical elemental feminist manifesto. And Jill came tumbling after: Sexism in American education. Her voices hermeneutics of the feminine. Hermeneutics of the feminine. Erkenntnisprojekt Geschlecht feministische Perspektiven verwandeln Wissenschaft. Vulnerable workers psychosocial and legal issues. Children reading and writing beyond gendered identities. Shards of glass children reading and writing beyond gendered identities. Gender and the professional predicament in nursing.
Femmes, race et classe. A catalogue of non sexist materials for children. Feminist pedagogy in the physical sciences. A practical assessment of feminist pedagogy. Educational Resources Information Center U. A practical assessment of feminist pedagogy a research report. Power under the microscope.
The swimsuit issue and sport: Hegemonic masculinity in Sports illustrated. The paternal romance reading God-the-Father in early Western culture. Sex segregation, relative wages and the technical conditions of production, a theoretical and empirical analysis. Executive authority, military intervention, and foreign relations. Presses universitaires de Lille.
Papa lit, maman coud. How to take charge of the issues that affect you. Born free, a world of options. Stato e rapporti sociali di sesso. Sex roles and the school. Saharasia the BCE origins of child abuse, sex-repression, warfare and social violence in the deserts of the Old World: The revolutionary discovery of a geographic basis to human behavior. Transforming men changing patterns of dependency and dominance in gender relations. Indelible imprints daughters write on fathers.
Stree Distributed by Bhatkal Books International. Patriarchy and its discontents sexual politics in selected novels and stories of Thomas Hardy. La sexualidad y el poder. Patriarchalismus in der DDR strukturelle, kulturelle und subjektive Dimensionen der Geschlechterpolarisierung. Evil sisters the threat of female sexuality and the cult of manhood.
Evil sisters the threat of female sexuality in twentieth-century culture. The gender question in education theory, pedagogy, and politics. Surviving sexual contradictions a startling and different look at a day in the life of a contemporary professional woman. The cultural unity of Black Africa the domains of patriarchy and of matriarchy in classical antiquity.
Women in class struggle. The future of women. Violence against wives a case against the patriarchy. The town of N. Are teachers fair to girls? How do teachers interact with girls and boys in their classrooms? Recent trends in occupational segregation by gender a look across the Atlantic. Images of women in American popular culture. Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
What makes women sick. Gender and the political economy of health. A look at sexism. Frauen in der Sozialarbeit: Survival in the sexist jungle. Books for Better Living. Gender and the name of God the Trinitarian baptismal formula. Gender power, leadership, and governance. University of Michigan Press. The aesthetics of power essays in critical art history. Gender, economy and culture in the European Union.
Beyond servanthood Christianity and the liberation of women. Association des enseignants francophones du Nouveau-Brunswick. Vers un nouveau paradigme: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation T. Green Lion Productions, Inc. Science and sexual oppression: Fathering the unthinkable masculinity, scientists, and the nuclear arms race.
Masculinity, scientists, and the nuclear arms race. Essais en anthropologie des sexes. Sex equality and political participation of women in Canada: The double standard a feminist critique of feminist social science.
A feminist critique of feminist social sciences. Sexism in research and its policy implications. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. On the treatment of the sexes in research. The pro-family movement are they for or against families? Nonsexist research methods a practical guide. The world of obituaries gender across cultures and over time. Patriarcado capitalista y feminismo socialista. Feminism and sexual equality crisis in liberal America. The color of gender. Racialized and sexualized conflicts in the 21st century.
Capitalist patriarchy and the case for socialist feminism. Geschlechtstypisches Kommunikationsverhalten in studentischen Kleingruppen. The chalice and the blade our history, our future. Women Living Under Muslim Laws. The language of Canaan and the grammar of feminism. Repression, resistance, and women in Afghanistan.
Women and worship a guide to non-sexist hymns, prayers, and liturgies. A guide to non-sexist hymns, prayers, and liturgies. Women and worship a guide to nonsexist hymns, prayers, and liturgies. Aus dem deutschen Schulalltag: Gender roles and faculty lives in rhetoric and composition.
Southern Illinois University Press. Sex, gender, and the social order. Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission. Uso no sexista del lenguaje administrativo. Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales, Instituto de la Mujer. Gender, color, and culture. Gender analysis of primary school textbooks in trial of general polytechnic education curriculum in Ethiopia.. The God of ecstasy sex-roles and the madness of Dionysos. The manly movie guide. Gender and career in science and engineering. Somos machistas los cochabambinos? Fragmented women feminist sub versions of biblical narratives.
Hacia una escuela no sexista. Ethnic, machine, and sexual politics in a senatorial election. Why men are the way they are: Why men are the way they are the male-female dynamic. The sociocultural construction of femininity in contemporary urban Taiwan. Inclusive language in liturgy.
Apprenticeship in liberty sex, feminism and sociobiology. Sex, feminism and sociobiology. Biological theories about women and men. Violence and gender relations: Eminent rhetoric language, gender, and cultural tropes. Language, gender, and cultural tropes. Working-class women in the academy laborers in the knowledge factory.
Working-class women in the academy: Laborers in the knowledge factory. Challenging the double standard. Race and gender in the American economy: Views from across the spectrum. Feminist Teacher Editorial Collective. Again at the looking glass language arts curriculum materials for combatting sex stereotyping. Race, gender, and white supremacy. Rewriting the Renaissance the discourses of sexual difference in early modern Europe. A escola e a desigualdade sexual. Una mirada no sexista las clases de ciencias experimentales.
Racism and Sexism in Corporate Life.